Cockroaches

Cockroaches live in a wide range of environments around the world. Pest species of cockroaches adapt readily to a variety of environments, but prefer warm conditions found within buildings. Many tropical species prefer even warmer environments and do not fare well in the average ousehold.




The spines on the legs were earlier considered to be sensory, but observations of their locomotion on  sand and wire meshes have demonstrated that they help in locomotion on difficult terrain. The structures have been used as inspiration for robotic legs.

Cockroaches leave chemical trails in their feces as well as emitting airborne pheromones for swarming  and mating. These chemical trails transmit bacteria on surfaces.Other cockroaches will follow these trails to discover sources of food and water, and also discover where other cockroaches are hiding. Thus, cockroaches can exhibit emergent behavior, in which group or swarm behavior emerges from a simple set of individual interactions. Research has shown that group-based decision-making is responsible for complex behavior such as resource allocation. In a study where 50 cockroaches were placed in a dish with three shelters with a capacity for 40 insects in each, the insects arranged themselves in two shelters with 25 insects in each, leaving the third shelter empty. When the capacity of the shelters was increased to more than 50 insects per shelter, all of the cockroaches arranged themselves in one shelter. Researchers found a balance between cooperation and competition exists in the group decision-making behavior found in cockroaches. The models used in this research can also explain the group dynamics of other insects and animals.

Cockroaches are mainly nocturnal and will run away when exposed to light. A peculiar exception is the  Asian cockroach, which is attracted to light. Another study tested the hypothesis that cockroaches use just two pieces of information to decide where to go under those conditions: how dark it is and how many other cockroaches there are. The study conducted by José Halloy and colleagues at the Free University of Brussels and other European institutions created a set of tiny robots that appear to the roaches as other roaches and can thus alter the roaches' perception of critical mass. The robots were also specially scented so that they would be accepted by the real roaches.

Additionally, researchers at Tohoku University engaged in a classical conditioning experiment with cockroaches and discovered that the insects were able to associate the scent of vanilla and peppermint
 with a sugar treat

Treatments:-
We at al alafiah use different kinds of municipality approved chemical which is in a gel form and that’s  the only best way for us to eradicate as well as prevent cockroaches from entering your premises where in you do not have to live your house nor ur things and its safe for children’s too as it’s a herbal treatment



Bed Bug :-
Bed bugs (sometimes bedbugs), are small parasitic insects. The most common  type is Cimex lectularius. The term usually refers to species that prefer to feed on human blood. All  insects in this family live by feeding exclusively on the blood of warm-blooded animals.

A number of health effects may occur due to bed bugs including skin rashes, psychological effects  and allergic symptoms. Diagnosis involves both finding bed bugs and the occurrence of compatible symptoms. Treatment is otherwise symptomatic. In the developed world, bed bugs were largely eradicated as pests in the early 1940s, but have increased in prevalence since about 1995. Because infestation of human habitats has been on the increase, bed bug bites and related conditions have been on the rise as well. The exact causes of this resurgence remain unclear; it is variously ascribed to greater foreign travel, more frequent exchange of second-hand furnishings among homes, a greater focus on control of other pests resulting in neglect of bed bug countermeasures, and increasing resistance to pesticides. Bed bugs have been known as human parasites for thousands of years.

The name "bed bug" is derived from the insect's preferred habitat of houses and especially beds or other areas where people sleep. Bed bugs, though not strictly nocturnal, are mainly active at night and are capable of feeding unnoticed on their hosts. They have however been known by a variety of names including wall louse, mahogany flat, crimson rambler, heavy dragoon, chinche and redcoa

Bed bugs are obligatory hematophagous (bloodsucking) insects. Most species feed on humans only  when other prey are unavailable. Bed bugs are attracted to their hosts primarily by carbon dioxide,  secondarily by warmth, and also by certain chemicals. A bed bug pierces the skin of its host with two hollow feeding tubes shaped like tongues. With one tube  it injects its saliva, which contains anticoagulants and anesthetics, while with the other it withdraws the  blood of its host. After feeding for about five minutes, the bug returns to its hiding place. It takes between five to ten 
minutes for a bed bug to become completely engorged with blood.” Although bed bugs can live for a year without feeding, they normally try to feed every five to ten days. In  cold weather, bed bugs can live for about a year; at temperatures more conducive to activity and feeding, about 5 months.
At the 57th Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America in 2009, newer generations of pesticide-resistant bed bugs in Virginia were reported to survive only two months without feeding. DNA from human blood meals from bed bugs can be recovered for up to 90 days, which may allow  them to be used for forensic purposes for identifying on whom the bed bugs have been feeding.

All bed bugs mate by traumatic insemination. Female bed bugs possess a reproductive tract that functions during oviposition, but the male doesn't use this tract for sperm insemination. Instead, the male pierces the female's abdomen with his hypodermic genitalia and ejaculates into the body cavity. In all bed bug species except Primicimex cavernis, sperm are injected into the mesospermalege, a  component of the spermalege, a secondary genital structure that reduces the wounding and  immunological costs of traumatic insemination. Injected sperm travel via the haemolymph (blood) to sperm storage structures called seminal  conceptacles, with fertilisation eventually taking place at the ovaries. Male bed bugs sometimes attempt to mate with other males and pierce the latter in the abdomen.  This behaviour occurs because sexual attraction in bed bugs is based primarily on size, and males will mount any freshly-fed partner regardless of sex. The "bed bug alarm pheromone" consists of 
(E)-2-octenal and (E)-2-hexenal. It is released when a bed bug is disturbed, as during an attack by a predator. A 2009 study demonstrated that the alarm pheromone is also released by male bed bugs to  repel other males who attempt to mate with them. C. lectularius and C. hemipterus will mate with each other given the opportunity, but the eggs then  produced are usually sterile. In a 1988 study, 1 egg out of 479 was fertile and resulted in a hybrid, C. hemipterus × lectularius.bed bugs have six life stages (five immature and an adult stage). They will shed their skins through a  molting process (ecdysis) throughout multiple stages of their lives. The discarded outer shells look like  clear, empty exoskeletons of the bugs themselves. Bed bugs must molt six times before becoming fertile adults.

Treatments:-

Two Types of treatment 
Smell Less :- Where in no much smell u just have to close ur house for just 6 hrs and all the bugs will be removed up to a certain extend  With

Many times homeowners feel that once a pest control service is performed, the insects are gone and the problem is solved. However, with today's active lifestyles, there are many opportunities for insects to enter a structure and become a problem. Sometimes even after service. That's why at Al Afiah Pest control, we offer several different plans of service to prevent insect problems and correct them before they become troublesome. Our complete schedule of pest control services includes one-time treatments, monthly or quarterly service performing both inside and outside treatments.  Our quarterly plan also includes all nuisance pests  (excluding wood destroying types) with free emergency visits between regularly scheduled visits.  We also offer Guaranteed One-Year Flea Control Protection as well as six months guaranteed term.




Rodents

Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously growing  incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must be kept short by gnawing.
Forty percent of mammal species are rodents, and they are found in vast numbers on all continents other than Antarctica. Common rodents include mice, rats, squirrels, porcupines, beavers, chipmunks, guinea pigs, and voles. Rodents have sharp incisors that they use to gnaw wood, break into food, and bite
predators. Most eat seeds or plants, though some have more varied diets. Some species have historically been pests, eating seeds stored by people and spreading disease. The name comes from the Latin word rodens, "gnawing one" Many rodents are small; the tiny African pygmy mouse can be as little as 6 cm (2.4 in) in length and 7 g (0.25 oz) in weight at maturity, and the Baluchistan Pygmy Jerboa is of roughly similar or slightly smaller dimensions. On the other hand, the capybara can weigh up to 80 kg (180 lb), and the largest known
rodent, the extinct Josephoartigasia monesi, is estimated to have weighed about 1,000 kg (2,200 lb), and possibly up to 1,534 kg (3,380 lb) or 2,586 kg (5,700 lb).

Rodents have two incisors in the upper as well as in the lower jaw which grow continuously and must be 
kept worn down by gnawing; this is the origin of the name, from the Latin rodere, to gnaw. These teeth are used for cutting wood, biting through the skin of fruit, or for defense. The teeth have enamel on the outside and exposed dentine on the inside, so they self-sharpen during gnawing. Rodents lack canines, and have a space (diastema) between their incisors and premolars. Nearly all rodents feed on plants, seeds in particular, but there are a few exceptions which eat insects or fish. Some squirrels are known to eat passerine birds like cardinals and blue jays.

Types of treatments:

Bait Station

Bait Station 


Glue Trap

Glue Trap


Rat Poison

Rat Poison


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